That’s a nice idea, you may find this quite difficult to do though.
I’d think you’d probably need to write a script to control the LCD, and then possibly get emulationstation to execute the script and output the name of the ROM, I believe this is possible by editing the es_systems.cfg and just adding an additional line of code to execute your script, of course this would be per emulator.
I’m not entirely sure if emulationstation “knows” what rom is being loaded, you’ll need to do a bit of research on that.
And finally, getting the screen to clear after you’ve exited the game might be harder, but again it could be possible that emulationstation could execute this.
As a side note, I’m not aware of anyone doing this before. If you can program then you could possibly write your own GUI for the emulators and then it would be much easier to implement this LCD into your setup.